Fabio Capello named his 24-man squad on Sunday evening and there was no place for Walcott - scorer of a hat-trick against Croatia last year - despite the winger marking his return to action for Arsenal with a goal in a 6-2 rout of Blackburn Rovers.
Sunday's match was his first of the season as a result of fitness problems originating in a summer in which he was called up by both the senior and Under-21 England sides - a situation that angered Arsene Wenger.
Sunderland striker Bent has also been overlooked despite scoring seven goals in eight Premier League games for his new club, while Aston Villa's Ashley Young has also been excluded despite featuring in a number of squads under Capello.
Manchester United goalkeeper Ben Foster is not included following a shaky run of form at Old Trafford but his absence has been attributed to a fitness problem. Tottenham striker Jermain Defoe is also out due to a hand injury.
Gabriel Agbonlahor, David James and Rio Ferdinand have all been recalled for the two fixtures which are relatively meaningless for England given they secured their place at the World Cup finals with a victory over Croatia in their last fixture.
England travel to Ukraine on Saturday and then welcome Belarus to Wembley four days later as they conclude what has been a hugely-successful campaign under Capello.
England squad: Robinson (Blackburn), Green (West Ham), James (Portsmouth); A Cole (Chelsea), Terry (Chelsea), Johnson (Liverpool), Bridge (Manchester City), Lescott (Manchester City), Brown (Manchester United), Ferdinand (Manchester United), Upson (West Ham); Milner (Aston Villa), Lampard (Chelsea), Beckham (Los Angeles Galaxy), Gerrard (Liverpool), Barry (Manchester City), Wright-Phillips (Manchester City), Carrick (Manchester United), Lennon (Tottenham); Agbonlahor (Aston Villa), Heskey (Aston Villa), Crouch (Tottenham), C Cole (West Ham), Rooney (Manchester United).