Looking through the closed window
ArsenalIn: Luke Freeman (Gillingham, £200,000)
Out: Lassana Diarra (Portsmouth, £5.5 million), Matthew Connolly (QPR, undisclosed), Fran Merida (Real Sociedad, loan), Kieran Gibbs (Norwich, loan), Mark Randall (Burnley, loan) Arsene Wenger had long insisted he was unlikely to make a significant signing in January but a late rethink may have been beneficial. Arsenal are thought to have made a late inquiry about Jonathan Woodgate and, with Philippe Senderos' extended slump in form, William Gallas and Kolo Toure have assumed paramount importance in their season. Though Johan Djourou has returned from a loan spell at Birmingham, the first-choice central defenders lack reliable cover; titles have been decided by lesser issues. Wenger, so often in the black in the transfer market, did turn in a quick and sizeable profit on the unsettled Lassana Diarra.
Aston VillaIn: Wayne Routledge (Tottenham, £1.25 million)
Out: Gary Cahill (Bolton, £5 million) Just as he did in the summer, Martin O'Neill seems to prefer to do his business right at the end of the window though why, with Villa potential Champions League qualifiers, Tottenham's rejects were targeted is a matter for conjecture. Neither the signing of Wayne Routledge nor the move for Kevin-Prince Boateng entirely makes sense but, at this stage last season, Ashley Young had his doubters. And even with the late additions, Villa's remains the Premier League's smallest squad. With the confirmation that Olof Mellberg will join Juventus in the summer, a specialist right-back will be required in the summer.
Birmingham CityIn: David Murphy (Hibernian, £1.5 million), James McFadden (Everton, £5 million), Mauro Zarate (Al Sadd, loan)
Out: Rowan Vine (QPR, £1 million), Neil Danns (Crystal Palace, £600,000), Mat Sadler (Watford, £750,000), Neil Kilkenny (Leeds, undisclosed) Perhaps predictably, there has been a Scottish flavour to Alex McLeish's buys and, as James McFadden could become Birmingham's second biggest buy, it is no exaggeration to say their destiny rests in his hands. A match-winner for McLeish on international duty, Birmingham require a repeat, especially as much of the rest of the strike force have endured a barren month. While David Murphy provides the left-back Blues required, the failure to lure Gary Cahill across the Second City, coupled with the end of Johan Djourou's loan spell, may leave them short of a quality central defender. McLeish has done well, however, to dispense of four fringe players.
Out: Robbie Savage (Derby, £1.5 million), Peter Enckelman (Cardiff, loan), Paul Gallagher (Stoke, loan) Mark Hughes has long prospered on a modest budget. Perversely, given a lack of additions, this transfer window has extended that record, if only because interest in Roque Santa Cruz has been repelled. But the Blackburn squad, never the biggest, has been further reduced by Robbie Savage's departure to Derby though, if other midfielders remain fit, that should not prove too significant. With others spending, Hughes' job is becoming increasingly difficult.
Bolton WanderersIn: Gretar Steinsson (AZ Alkmaar, £3.5 million), Matthew Taylor (Portsmouth, £3.5 million), Gary Cahill (Aston Villa, £5 million), Tamir Cohen (Maccabi Netanya, undisclosed), Grzegorz Rasiak (Southampton, loan)
Out: Nicolas Anelka (Chelsea, £15 million), Gary Speed (Sheffield United, free), Gerald Cid (Nice, free), Christian Wilhelmsson (Deportivo la Coruna, loan), Lubomir Michalik (Leeds, £200,000) If there was an inevitability about Nicolas Anelka's eventual departure, the consequences intrigue. The break-up of Sam Allardyce's back four had cost Bolton their reputation for defensive dependability, so the additions of Steinsson and Cahill, even if both appear over-priced, make sense. But Gary Megson's inability to sign a proven Premier League striker - impressive though Grzegorz Rasiak's record at lower levels is - prompts questions as to where the goals will come from. And without too many, Bolton's battle for survival will become harder.
ChelseaIn: Nicolas Anelka (Bolton, £15 million), Branislav Ivanovic (Lokomotiv Moscow, £9.7 million), Franco di Santo (Audax Italiano, £3.5 million)
Out: Twelve months ago, Roman Abramovich appeared reluctant to back his manager in the transfer market. That is not an allegation that can be levelled now, and Chelsea should benefit. Nicolas Anelka's encouraging start to his Stamford Bridge career suggests that, at last, a reliance on Didier Drogba will be alleviated. Branislav Ivanovic has not appeared yet but, in signing a coveted striker and a desired defender, Chelsea seem not to have repeated their errors last summer, when their cheap acquisitions proved to lack the required quality.
Derby CountyIn: Robbie Savage (Blackburn, £1.5 million), Danny Mills (Manchester City, loan), Hossam Ghaly (Tottenham, loan), Laurent Robert (free), Emanuel Villa (UAG Tecos, £2 million), Roy Carroll (Rangers, loan), Alan Stubbs (Everton, free), Mile Sterjovski (Genclerbirligi, £300,000)
Out: Steve Howard (Leicester, £1.35 million), Matt Oakley (Leicester, £500,000), Andy Griffin (Stoke, £300,000), Jon Macken (Barnsley, £150,000), Stephen Bywater (Ipswich, loan), Lewin Nyatanga (Barnsley, loan) The Titanic may have equipped themselves with a new crew, but the sinking feeling remains. If Paul Jewell's theory was that Derby would go down fighting, his choice of personnel was apt. But, though he has provided an injection of Premier League experience, it has surely come too late. The appointment of Robbie Savage as captain marks a change of direction, but it is hard to detect an improvement in Derby. And though only Matt Oakley of the players sold possessed the ability to prosper in the Premier League, Andy Griffin and Steve Howard have excelled in the Championship before. They may have proved handy next season.
EvertonIn: Manuel Fernandes (Valencia, loan), Dan Gosling (Plymouth, £2 million), Anthony Gardner (Tottenham, loan)
Out: James McFadden (Birmingham, £5 million), Alan Stubbs (Derby, free), Anderson da Silva (Barnsley, undisclosed) In securing a guaranteed £5 million for a fringe player in James McFadden, David Moyes and Bill Kenwright can reflect with satisfaction on their efforts in January. The return of Manuel Fernandes, five months after Everton attempted to buy him, is a further boost, especially if the Portuguese midfielder's second loan spell at Goodison Park leads to a permanent move. Phil Jagielka's fine form has permitted the end of Alan Stubbs' second spell of valiant service.
FulhamIn: Brede Hangeland (FC Copenhagen, undisclosed), Erik Nevland (FK Groningen, £1.85 million), Leon Andreasen (Werder Bremen, undisclosed), Eddie Johnson (Kansas City, undisclosed), Toni Kallio (Young Boys, undisclosed), Jari Litmanen (free), Paul Stalteri (Tottenham, loan)
Out: Collins John (Watford, loan), Lee Cook (Charlton, loan), Steven Davis (Rangers, loan), Tony Warner (Barnsley, loan) Roy Hodgson's is a tall task. Remedying the damage done by Lawrie Sanchez who spent heavily and played direct football with a team almost devoid of six-footers, is not easy. Hence the addition of three players, in Hangeland, Andreasen and Nevland, with greater height to presumably constitute a new spine to Sanchez's small side. Deadline day moves mean that Fulham have now signed 22 players in the last two transfer windows and Jari Litmanen's return to the Premier League is belated, but welcome as Hodgson's signings contain a sprinkling of familiar faces. But with a regular scorer a clear requirement, the defining moments of the transfer window for Hodgson may prove to be the collapse of the deals for Marlon King and Daniel Cousin.
LiverpoolIn: Javier Mascherano (£17 million, subject to terms), Martin Skrtel (Zenit St Petersburg, £6.5 million)
Out: Momo Sissoko (Juventus, £8.2 million), Jack Hobbs (Scunthorpe, loan), Lee Peltier (Yeovil, undisclosed) Rafa Benitez's requirements, identified the best part of three months ago, were a defender and the completion of the deal for Javier Mascherano. The disputes surrounding their acquisition have destabilised the club, but the eventual recognition of the legitimacy of Benitez's targets may finally enable Liverpool to progress. Securing £8.2 million for Momo Sissoko, their fifth-choice central midfielder, ranks as a bonus but Martin Skrtel's error-riddled full debut against Havant & Waterlooville certainly does not.
Manchester CityIn: Nery Castillo (Shakhtar Donetsk, loan), Felipe Caicedo (Basle, £5.2 million), Filippo Mancini (Inter, loan)
Out: Rolando Bianchi (Lazio, loan), Georgios Samaras (Celtic, loan), Danny Mills (Derby, loan), Ousmane Dabo (Lazio, undisclosed), Ishmael Miller (West Brom, undisclosed) After the frenzy of transfer activity that ensued after Sven-Goran Eriksson's appointment, January has to rank as an anticlimax. Nery Castillo made City the envy of clubs aplenty by paying much of his loan fee from Shakhtar Donetsk, but injury has subsequently sidelined the Mexican. Meanwhile, although Eriksson has dispensed with some of the less impressive of City's supporting cast, such deals do not boost his transfer budget. A striker was the objective a month ago but, with Nicolas Anelka and Adriano going elsewhere and Roque Santa Cruz and Peter Crouch remaining at their current clubs, Eriksson had to look rather lower down his list of targets. Felipe Caicedo is rather less likely to propel City into the Champions League, and they may be left to count the cost of the collapse of Benjani's move from Portsmouth.
Manchester UnitedIn: Manucho (Petro Atletico, £3.5 million)
Out: Ryan Shawcross (Stoke, £1 million), Phil Bardsley (Sunderland, £2 million), Jonny Evans (Sunderland, loan), Adam Eckersley (Port Vale, free), Lee Martin (Sheffield United, loan), Fabian Brandy (Swansea, loan), Kieran Lee (QPR, loan), Mancuho (Panathinaikos, loan) United lacked quantity, though definitely not quality, in attack but as the Angolan Manucho has been swiftly loaned out, he will not remedy that. Given Louis Saha's frequent absences, their title pursuit continues with only two specialist strikers. That apart, Sir Alex Ferguson's January dealings have concerned the many products of United's prolific academy. In Ryan Shawcross and Phil Bardsley, he has raised £3 million from two players who were unlikely to ever become first choices at Old Trafford. Numerous other loan deals may prove the prelude to similarly lucrative sales.
MiddlesbroughIn: Afonso Alves (Heerenveen, £12.6 million),
Out: Jonathan Woodgate (Tottenham, £8 million), Andrew Davies (Southampton, £1 million), Matthew Bates (Norwich, loan), Ben Hutchinson (Celtic, undisclosed) The long quest for a striker has finally ended. Now it is up to Afonso Alves to prove himself more prolific than Jeremie Aliadiere, Dong-Gook Lee and co. It was an indication of both Boro's desperation for a forward and their comparative strength in depth in defence that Jonathan Woodgate was sacrificed to fund the Alves deal, without too many inquests on Teesside about the departure of one of their own. More important was retaining Stewart Downing, though his contract dispute bodes ill for the future.
Newcastle UnitedIn: Fabio Zamplera (Atalanta, undisclosed), Tamas Kadar (Zalaegerszeg, undisclosed), Ben Tozer (Swindon, undisclosed)
Out: Matty Pattison (Norwich, free), David Rozehnal (Lazio, loan) A ball-playing midfield enforcer was just what Kevin Keegan required. Sadly for him, Dennis Wise is about a decade past his prime and now partly responsible for identifying future Newcastle players. A former one, Jonathan Woodgate, rejected a return to Tyneside which at least indicated that Keegan recognised that strengthening the defence is a priority. Giles Barnes and Momo Sissoko have gone and stayed elsewhere respectively, adding to the frustration, unlikely to have been alleviated by the introduction of three youngsters. But while a major overhaul is required in the summer, but in the absence of new faces on the pitch, it falls upon the expensively-assembled but mismatched squad to avert a descent into a relegation struggle.
PortsmouthIn: Milan Baros (Lyon, loan), Lassana Diarra (Arsenal, £5.5 million), Danijel Subotic (Basle, undisclosed), Jermain Defoe (Tottenham, £9 million)
Out: Matt Taylor (Bolton, £3.5 million), Djimi Traore (Rennes, loan) Another month to justify the reputation that Harry Redknapp pretends to dislike. The wheeler-dealer has reaped an instant reward from the recruitment of Lassana Diarra, who excelled in his first two matches. Redknapp's long-term target Jermain Defoe has finally been lured to Fratton Park. Milan Baros, meanwhile, conforms to the type of the gifted underachiever that Redknapp has frequently helped to rehabilitate and, just as significantly, they are additions in the two departments where Portsmouth required them. Whether the collapse of Benjani's move to Manchester City leaves them overstretched financially remains to be seen.
ReadingIn: Marek Matejovsky (Mlada Boleslaw, undisclosed), Jimmy Kebe (Lens, undisclosed)
Out: John Halls (Crystal Palace, loan), James Henry (Norwich, loan), Alex Pearce (Norwich, loan) As understated in the transfer market as he is in much else he does, Steve Coppell has endured another quiet month. Yet that might not be entirely beneficial. The first half of the season exposed some serious flaws in a Reading side who overachieved last season. It remains to be seen if the Czech international Marek Matejovsky can prove a belated replacement for Steve Sidwell, but a porous defence certainly required strengthening. Coppell's caution is often admirable, but sometimes greater adventure is required.
SunderlandIn: Phil Bardsley (Manchester United, £2 million), Jonny Evans (Manchester United, free), Jean-Yves Mvoto Mvoto (Paris St Germain, undisclosed), Rade Prica (Aalborg, £2 million), Andy Reid (Charlton, £4 million)
Out: Stanislav Varga (Burnley, loan), Andy Cole (Burnley, loan), Greg Halford (Charlton, loan) After the difficulties Roy Keane's summer signings endured, the victory over Birmingham must have brought some relief. One recruit - Rade Price - scored while two more - Phil Bardsley and Jonny Evans - contributed to a rare clean sheet. With both questionable defending and a lack of support for Kenwyne Jones prominent among the problems Keane faced, it would appear he has addressed both, and on a rather smaller budget than in the summer. Andy Reid, meanwhile, adds to the Irish contingent and at a time when injuries have deprived Sunderland of left-sided players.
Tottenham HotspurIn: Jonathan Woodgate (Middlesbrough, £8 million), Chris Gunter (Cardiff, £1 million), Alan Hutton (Rangers, £9 million), Gilberto (Hertha Berlin, undisclosed)
Out: Hossam Ghaly (Derby, loan), Ben Alnwick (Leicester, loan), Wayne Routledge (Aston Villa, £1.25 million), Phil Ifil (Colchester, undisclosed), Paul Stalteri (Fulham, loan), Jermain Defoe (Portsmouth, undisclosed), Anthony Gardner (Everton, loan) It has become one of football's immutable laws. If it's a transfer window then Tottenham must be spending. At least this time, the indications are that Juande Ramos recognised and has attempted to remedy their failings. Or, in other words, he tried to sign a whole new defence. He almost managed it, too, with late addition of the Brazilian left-back Gilberto, while Rangers' Alan Hutton should prove an improvement at right-back. However, despite an impressive debut, the logic of signing Jonathan Woodgate because Ledley King is injury-prone is odd, to say the least. A goalkeeper is still needed in the summer, but Ramos' reshaping of the side has begun rapidly. And though Spurs continue to accumulate players in the manner Imelda Marcos collected shoes, they have finally started to dispense with some. Jermain Defoe's goals could be missed, though.
West Ham UnitedIn:
Out: Hogan Ephraim (QPR, £800,000), Christian Dailly (Rangers, loan) Alan Curbishley has been as good as his word. The West Ham manager vowed not to sign in January and West Ham, who spent £19 million at the corresponding stage of last season, have been inactive now. That is aided, of course, by the size of their squad, though the lengthy injury list has not prompted Curbishley to buy. Unveiling a regular scorer, however, would have made European football a more likely prospect next season.
Wigan AthleticIn: Luis Antonio Valencia (Villarreal, £2 million), Marlon King (Watford, £4 million), Erik Edman (Rennes, £500,000), Maynor Figueroa (Deportivo Olimpia, loan), Wilson Palacios (Olimpia, undisclosed), Erik Hagen (Zenit St Petersburg, loan)
Out: Fitz Hall (QPR, undisclosed), Denny Landzaat (Feyenoord, £1 million) Steve Bruce has recognised the areas where Wigan needed to strengthen. The question is whether his recruits can keep them in the Premier League. With no specialist left-back since Leighton Baines' departure, Bruce has now recruited two. With a reliance on Marcus Bent and Emile Heskey in attack, he has added Marlon King. Wilson Palacios, meanwhile, brings a more forceful approach to midfield. But an addition in the centre of defence may have enabled Bruce to breathe easier in the relegation run-in.